United States Population In 2000
The total U.S. population in the year 2000 was 281,982,778. This is a population density of 30.09 per square kilometer. The 2000 census was the 22nd census to be conducted in the United States and was taken on April 1st.
California was the most populated state in the U.S. in 2000 with 33,871,648 residents. It was followed by Texas with a population of 20,851,820 and New York with 18,976,457 residents. New York, however, was the most populated city, with a population of 8,015,348. Los Angeles, California was the second most populated city with 3,703,921 residents. Chicago came in third with 2,895,671 residents.
As the United States grows and becomes more diverse, the measure of the population by race becomes a crucial element of each year’s census. The 2000 census brought significant revisions to the questions regarding race and Hispanic origin to gather a more accurate picture of the population’s evolving racial diversity.
In 2000, 75.1% of the population reported their race as white,12.3% responded as black or African American, and 0.9% responded as American Indian and Alaska Native. 3.6% of the population reported being of Asian descent, 0.1% reported Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, and 5.5% of the population reported “some other race”. 2.4% of people reported being of two or more races. Out of the total population, 12.5% reported as Hispanic or Latino . 87.5% reported being not Hispanic or Latino.
Middle Easterners And North Africans
According to the Arab American Institute , countries of origin for Arab Americans include Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
There are an estimated 910 million Middle Eastern Americans according to the U.S. Census, including both Arab and non-Arab Americans, comprising 0.6% of the total U.S. population however, the Arab American Institute estimates a population closer to 3.6 million. U.S. Census population estimates are based on responses to the ancestry question on the census, which makes it difficult to accurately count Middle Eastern Americans. Though Middle Eastern American communities can be found in each of the 50 states, the majority live in just 10 states with nearly “one third of the total liv in California, New York, and Michigan”. More Middle Eastern Americans live in California than any other state, with ethnic groups such as Arabs, Persians, and Armenians being a large percentage, but Middle Eastern Americans represent the highest percentage of the population of Michigan. In particular, Dearborn, Michigan has long been home to a high concentration of Middle Eastern Americans.
Th And 19th Centuries
The 1790 United States census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws.
“The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in two of the most public places within each jurisdiction, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned, and that ‘the aggregate amount of each description of persons’ for every district be transmitted to the president.” This law along with U.S. marshals were responsible for governing the census.
Loss of data
About one-third of the original census data have been lost or destroyed since documentation. The data were lost in 1790â1830, and included data from Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont, Delaware, Georgia, New Jersey, and Virginia however, the census was proven factual and the existence of most of these data can be confirmed in many secondary sources pertaining to the first census.
No microdata from the 1790 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.
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Members Of Other Races
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In the 2000 census, the non-standard category of “Other” was especially intended to capture responses such as Mestizo and Mulatto, two large multiracial groups in most of the countries of origin of Hispanic and Latino Americans. However, many other responses are captured by the category.
In 2008 15.0 million people, nearly five percent of the total U.S. population, were estimated to be “some other race”, with 95% of them being Hispanic or Latino.
Due to this category’s non-standard status, statistics from government agencies other than the Census Bureau ” rel=”nofollow”> vital statistics, or the FBI‘s crime statistics), but also the Bureau’s own official Population Estimates, omit the “some other race” category and include most of the people in this group in the white population, thus including the vast majority of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the white population. For an example of this, see The World Factbook, published by the Central Intelligence Agency.
The United States: A Multilingual Country
Although English, in all its diversity, is unquestionably the countrys dominant national language, the U.S. has always had a complex multilingual history. Long before European settlers colonized North and South America, thousands of indigenous languages thrived from coast to coast. Today, some Indigenous languages are making a comeback as many states acknowledge their importance in the history and culture of the country.
With each new wave of immigrants residing in the country from every part of the globe, the linguistic and cultural diversity of the United States is growing.
The U.S. has one of the largest Chinese populations outside China, a demographic shift that may increase in the coming years. Spanish is now the most popular second language of the country.
America is home to the largest population of English speakers in the world, but bilingualism has been on the rise in the country for decades a trend that shows no signs of letting up.
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Diversity Index Varies By Geographic Level
During the same period, the largest racial or ethnic group has changed for some states and counties, and local level results illuminate new areas of diversity across the country.
Table 1 shows the 10 states with the highest DI in the 2020 Census and their 2020 and 2010 census values.
In general, the states with the highest DI scores are found in the West , the South and the Northeast .
Hawaii had the highest DI in 2020 at 76%, which was slightly higher than its 75.1% DI in 2010.
Of the states listed here, Maryland had the largest DI gain, increasing from 60.7% in 2010 to 67.3% in 2020.
Table 2 shows the 10 counties with the highest DI in 2020 and their scores in 2010.
Again, the way to interpret the DI is that there was a 73.7% chance in Prince William County, Virginia, that two people chosen at random were from different racial or ethnic groups. In Hawaii County, Hawaii, there was a 77.7% chance that two people chosen at random were from different racial or ethnic groups.
You can explore the Diversity Index for all states and counties by interacting with the data visualization.
Categorizing Race And Ethnicity
These diversity calculations require the use of mutually exclusive racial and ethnic categories.
The 1997 OMB standards emphasize that people of Hispanic origin may be of any race. In data tables, such as the 2020 Census redistricting data tables that provide Hispanic origin by race statistics, we often cross-tabulate the race and Hispanic origin categories to display Hispanic as a single category and the non-Hispanic race groups as categories summing up to the total population.
For our analyses, we calculated the Hispanic or Latino population of any race as a category each of the race alone, non-Hispanic or Latino groups as individual categories and the Two or More Races non-Hispanic group as a distinct category.
We know that cross tabulating the race and Hispanic origin categories yields a relatively small Some Other Race alone non-Hispanic population. This is because the vast majority of responses to the race question that are classified as Some Other Race alone are from people of Hispanic or Latino origin identifying as Mexican, Latino and other Hispanic origin groups.
Similarly, we do not see the same large increase in the Multiracial non-Hispanic population from 2010 to 2020 using these cross-tabulated categories.
The most prevalent racial or ethnic group for the United States was the White alone non-Hispanic population at 57.8%. This decreased from 63.7% in 2010.
The following groups are used in the diversity calculations:
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A Note On Terminology
The terms Hispanic and Latino are used interchangeably in this report.
The terms whites blacks and Asians are used to refer to the non-Hispanic components of each population.
Children refers to people ages 17 and younger.
Working-age refers to people ages 18 64.
Elderly refers to people ages 65 and older.
Foreign-born refers to an individual who is not a U.S. citizen at birth or, in other words, who is born outside the U.S., Puerto Rico or other U.S. territories and whose parents are not U.S. citizens. The terms foreign-born and immigrant are used interchangeably.
The terms unauthorized immigrants, undocumented immigrants and illegal immigrants are used interchangeably.
This report uses the following definitions of the first, second and third-and-higher generations:
- First: Foreign-born or immigrant.
- Second: U.S. native , with at least one first-generation parent.
- Third-and-higher: U.S. native , with both parents native-born.
Diversity And Americas Future
As I have written previously, racial and ethnic diversity will be an essential ingredient of Americas future. The mostly white baby boomer culture that defined the last half of the 20th century is giving way to a more multihued, multicultural nation. The demographic underpinnings for this have been set in place for a while, but the new census data places an exclamation point on them. It suggests that past projections of increased racial and ethnic diversity may have been too cautious given the accelerated aging and decline of the white population. We will know more when the full 2020 census results are released next year.
One fact is already clear: As the nation becomes even more racially diverse from the bottom up of the age structure, more attention needs to be given to the needs and opportunities for Americas highly diverse younger generations. The demography alone dictates that this will be necessary to ensure success for these youth and the nation as a whole.
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Over Half Of The Black Population Lives In The South
In 2019, the South was the region with the highest share of the countrys Black population, with 56% of this population living there. The Midwest and Northeast each held 17% of this population, while the West was home to one-tenth of the Black population.
Regionally, the share of the national Black population living in the South has grown. In 2000, over half of Black people in the U.S. lived in the South, a very similar share to 2019 . Meanwhile, somewhat higher shares lived the Midwest and Northeast in 2000 than in 2019. Back then, 19% of the national Black population lived in the Midwest and 18% in the Northeast. Over the past two decades, the share of Black people living in Western states was unchanged, at 10%.
The growth of the Black population in the South suggests a departure from previous Black migration patterns. The first half of the 20th century featured increasing shares of the population residing in regions of the U.S. outside of the South, primarily after the start of the Great Migration in the late 1910s. Consequently, each decade featured decreasing shares of the Black population living in the South.
Starting in 1970, shares of the Black population who live in the South have grown. There has been a 4 percentage point increase in the shares of the Black population who live in the South between 1970 and 2019 .
Texas has the largest Black state population
The New York metropolitan area has the largest Black metropolitan population
An Overview Of Racial And Ethnic Demographic Trends
Gary D.Sandefur, Molly Martin, Jennifer Eggerling-Boeck, Susan E.Mannon, and Ann M.Meier
Provided here is an overview of major demographic trends for racial and ethnic groups in the United States over the past 50 or so years a daunting undertaking for one paper, given the variety of groups and topics addressed. Consequently, this overview is selective, covering what we feel are the most important trendspopulation composition and growth, fertility, family, mortality, and migration. Racial and ethnic categories are the ones used by the federal government.
To enumerate racial and ethnic groups, demographers rely on the U.S. decennial census and annual Current Population Surveys . To estimate marriage, fertility, and mortality rates, demographers use the national vital statistics records of births, marriages, and deaths. Estimates of internal migration come from the U.S. Bureau of the Census , and estimates of international migration come from the Immigration and Naturalization Services and USBC.
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Race And Ethnicity In The United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are the self-identified categories of race or races and ethnicity chosen by residents, with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether they are of Hispanic or Latino origin .
The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, “generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country.” OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the U.S. census as not “scientific or anthropological” and takes into account “social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry”, using “appropriate scientific methodologies” that are not “primarily biological or genetic in reference.” The race categories include both racial and national-origin groups.
Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are “Hispanic or Latino” and “Not Hispanic or Latino”. However, the practice of separating “race” and “ethnicity” as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights.
Relation Between Ethnicity And Race In Census Results
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The Census Bureau warns that data on race in 2000 census are not directly comparable to those collected in previous censuses. Many residents of the United States consider race and ethnicity to be the same.
In the 2000 census, respondents were tallied in each of the race groups they reported. Consequently, the total of each racial category exceeds the total population because some people reported more than one race.
According to James P. Allen and Eugene Turner from California State University, Northridge, by some calculations in the 2000 census the largest part white biracial population is white/Native American and Alaskan Native, at 7,015,017, followed by white/black at 737,492, then white/Asian at 727,197, and finally white/Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander at 125,628.
The Census Bureau implemented a Census Quality Survey, gathering data from about 50,000 households to assess the reporting of race and Hispanic origin in the 2000 census with the purpose of creating a way to make comparisons between the 2000 census with previous census racial data.
The AAA also stated,
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